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HGB

diy all in one solar power pack

by:HGB     2020-06-03
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In this instructures, I took you through everything you need to know to make your own DIY solar battery pack.
This is the perfect tool for any outdoor use such as camping, hiking, hunting, off-road, fishing and living environment.
You can also use it at home during a storm/power grid outage.
You can find all my projects above: make solar battery pack by considering the following factors: 1.
It should be portable.
Should be affordable3.
AC/DC power supply can be provided in case of emergency.
Looks like it should be down
I used a refurbished four-helicopter suitcase to make the case.
This is what I came up with-the finished product.
My solar battery pack features: Charging: Rated voltage for solar and AC main solar panels: 10 w output voltage (V)
: 2 x DC12V, 2 x USB 5 v 1 A and USB 5 v 2.
1 Slaughterhouse: 12 V/12AH sealed lead-
Photovoltaic charging controller: 3A, PWM inverter output: 200 W/220 v led light: 12 V/3 w Weight: 6.
Kg size: 340x230x3mm 1. Solar Panel (Aliexpress )2. Battery (Amazon )3.
Solar Charging Controller (Banggood )4. Inverter (Banggood )5.
Dual USB socket (Banggood )6. DC Jack (Amazon )7. Switch (Banggood )8.
12 v toggle switch (Gear Best)9. Volt Meter (Banggood )10. LED Holder (Banggood )11.
Female power jack (Gear Best )12.
Resistance: 1K13. Heat Shrink (Banggood )14.
Terminals (Banggood )15. Carrying Box (Banggood )16 .
Battery Charger (Amazon )17.
Screw terminal strip (eBay )18. USB LED Bulb (Banggood )19.
Self-adhesive Velcro (Amazon )Tools :1. Drill (Gear Best )2. JigSaw (Amazon )3.
Soldering iron (Gear Best )4.
Hot air blower (Gear Best)5. Hot Glue Gun (Gear Best)6. Wire Stripper (Gear Best )
If a solar system of any size is planned, choosing the right battery may be the biggest decision.
You have multiple options, but it is very important to choose the right battery.
Battery types for solar applications: 1. Lead Acid 2. Li Ion 3.
The Ni Cd in the above three batteries uses lead-acid batteries in most renewable energy storage due to low cost. 1.
Lead-acid batteries: using a car battery is the easiest way to store the energy of a solar panel.
But this is not suitable for solar applications.
They are manufactured to provide power for a short period of time and remain fully charged most of the time, making them unsuitable for solar applications.
The best choice for solar applications is valveregulated lead-acid (VRLA)
Batteries include absorbing glass pads (AGM)and gel models.
These batteries improve performance and total energy output, making them a good choice for solar applications. 2.
Lithium Ion battery: Lithium-
Ion batteries can usually provide more cycles than lead in their lifetimeacid.
This makes them a great choice for portable solar applications.
The most important benefit is lithium.
Ions provide high charging and discharging efficiency for solar energy, which helps to harvest more energy. Lithium-
Ion batteries also lose less capacity when they are idle, which is useful in solar applications. Li-
There are usually three forms of ion batteries: Bag, cylindrical and prism (rectangular-cubic).
The best candidate is a prism-like lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4; LFP)battery. 3.
Ni Cd battery: I don\'t have much idea about NiCd battery.
I will update this section later. Comparesion :i.
Cost: lithium ion is more expensive than lead acid (AGM )battery. ii.
Weight: lithium ion is lighter than lead acid (AGM )
Battery with the same capacity.
Iron phosphate is about 1-
Third, the weight of leadacid battery. iii.
Space: the capacity of lithium-ion batteries is about half the volume of lead-acid batteries with the same capacity. iv.
Life and performance: lithium ion batteries have the longest cycle life and better high temperature performance. I have described all the pros and cons about the battery.
Now you can choose according to your own priority.
Lithium-ion batteries are the best choice for making portable solar battery packs.
But keep in mind that you need a balance charger to charge it.
If you are on a tight budget and are happy to carry extra weight then buy a good quality AGM battery.
Cheap and reliable.
Photo source of lithium ion battery: Power BrickIn has 3 types of solar panels in general I)
Single crystal ii)
Polycrystal iii)
Film comparison: efficiency: the highest efficiency of single crystal and the lowest efficiency of thin film.
Cost: Single Crystal is the most expensive and thin film is the cheapest panel.
Occupied Area/Watt: the space required for a single crystal panel is the smallest than the other two.
High temperature performance: the performance of the film is better than that of single crystal and multi crystal panels at high temperature.
Polycrystals have all of the above properties between single crystals and thin films.
So they are widely used.
For portable solar battery packs, you have to consider two important factors 1. Space 2.
It is clear from the above comparison that single crystals are the best choice for this application.
Again, these panels come with an aluminum frame or epoxy coating.
Considering the weight, I recommend the use of a single crystal panel with an epoxy coating.
The top area of my case is 42. 5* 33. 5 cm .
Therefore, a maximum of 10 w panels can be installed.
I used a single crystal panel with only 294g, where the polycrystal of the aluminum frame of the same grade is 929G.
There is no doubt that the price of the Mono panel is 2.
5 times more than a plate.
Solar panel specifications: peak power: 10 WCell efficiency:> 19.
2% open circuit voltage: 22.
4 V operating voltage: 18 v short circuit current: 0.
Maximum power 62A current: 0.
55A maximum system voltage 1000 V DCSize: 340x230x3mm size: For more details, please go through my instructions on \"DIY off-grid solar system. The solar charging controller is the device placed between the solar panel and the battery.
It regulates voltage and current from solar panels.
It is used to keep the proper charging voltage on the battery.
When the input voltage of the solar panel rises, the charging controller adjusts the charging of the battery to prevent any overcharging.
There are two types of controller 1. PWM 2.
Because of the large volume of the inductor coil inside, the cost of PV is higher and heavier.
So I would suggest buying a PWM charging controller for a small system.
But if your system is larger then you can choose the maximum power point.
Currently I am using the SLA Battery but I will replace it with a lithium ion battery in the future.
So I chose a PWM charging controller that can charge multiple chemical batteries so I don\'t have to change them later.
Controller Specifications: 1.
Lead-acid battery compatible with various storage batteries, gel electrolyte (GEL)Battery, 3. 2V x 2 iron-phosphate-
Base lithium battery 3. 2V x 4 iron-phosphate-
Mainly lithium batteries, 3. 7V x 1 iron-phosphate-
Based on lithium batteries. 2.
Maximum solar panel specification 18 V/40 w 3.
Maximum open voltage 23 v Note: This charger is not tested for lithium ion batteries.
I did not find a high quality solar charging controller for a multi-cell lithium ion battery pack.
I will update here if I get it. Solar panel (PV)
Receiving the sun\'s light and converting it into electricity is called direct current (DC).
Then convert the DC to AC (AC)
Through a device called an inverterTypes: 1. Square Wave 2.
Modified sine wave 3.
Pure sine wave inverters are more expensive in all of these products, but very good for appliances.
I used an improved sine wave inverter as it is only for urgent use and not for continuous operation.
Inverter specification: input voltage: DC12V (11-14V)
25 AMax output voltage: 220 V ± 5% rated output power: 200 W output frequency: 50 hz ± 4 hz conversion efficiency: ≥ 87% USB output voltage: 5 V 1A MAX grab your note down measurement results.
Draw the same size shape on paper, or you can place the assembly and mark it.
Cut the template
Place the template on the shell and fix it to the edge using adhesive tape.
For small round holes, a drill bit of the right size is used.
For larger holes (
Round and rectangular)
, Drill a few holes first, and then use the clamp saw for precise cutting.
After making the slot, remove the template.
You may need very little archiving to install the components perfectly.
The on/off switch is on the back of the inverter.
To access it, I need to open the shell every time.
So I made an arrangement for the external switch.
First unscrew the back panel of the inverter and cut off the wire connecting the switch.
Then connect the external switch with a longer wire.
Close the back panel.
To install the inverter, first stick a thick foam board with glue.
Stick the inverter to it
The output socket should be outside.
The external on/off switch is then installed.
Fix them in the slot with hot glue.
Note: the inverter cooling fan is in the box, so keep the box open during the use of the inverter.
Otherwise, you have to arrange the cooling separately.
In order to facilitate the wiring of the components, I first connect the terminal wires.
Welding 14gw copper wire (
About 1 feet)
Terminals for LED lights and 5mm jack.
The dual USB socket is equipped with a cord pressing terminal.
Curl the terminals with a suitable curl tool.
Insulating the joint by applying appropriate heat shrinkage.
There are very few parts with nuts and washers and you have to tighten it properly.
The installation of other components uses hot glue.
If the component does not fit into the slot, archive it near the edge.
The wiring diagram is quite simple.
It consists of a charging controller, battery, input, output, connection, switch and fuse.
Charging Controller: this is a PWM type charging controller.
It has 3 terminals: solar, battery and load.
Wires from solar and batteries are connected to their respective terminals and the load terminals are not used due to their small rated current.
Battery: 12 v and 12 Ah sealed lead acid battery. Inputs : 1.
Solar: this is a DC Master power jack with screw terminals.
Output Terminal (Male Jack )
Connect from solar panels. 2.
Charger: This port is used to charge the battery from the AC power supply using the battery charger. Outputs :1.
Inverter: convert 12 v dc to 220 v ac.
It is suitable for laptops, electric fans, LCD TVs, small household appliances, etc. 2.
LED: 3 w LED for lighting.
You can use it as a powerful flash. 3. USB : 2 USB (2. 1A and 1A )
Port for charging your smartphone, tablet and any USB device running. 4.
12 v dc: 2 5mm jacks with 12 v dc output.
Suitable for music players or decorative lights.
Simply connect the above terminal lead to the corresponding port in the connection. 5.
KV table: there are 3 lines in the KV table I use (
Yellow, red, black).
The red and black wires are used for power supplies, and the yellow ones are used for signals.
Because the power supply is the same battery as the voltage to be measured.
Combine the red and yellow wires. 6.
LED 1: This is the green LED used to indicate solar charging.
The 1 k resistance connected in series is limiting the current. 7.
LED 2: This is the red LED, which is used to indicate that the battery is low.
Connection: since all outputs are taken out of the battery, you will need to connect the wiring terminals to the battery.
To make the connection cleaner, I used the screw terminal strip to connect.
Switch: switch S1 is the main switch for all loads.
S2 is the meter switch, S3 is the inverter switch, S4 is the combination switch of USB and 12 v output, S5 is the LED flash switch.
This is the fuse seat.
Use the right fuse according to your load.
Connect the diode in series with the positive pole of the solar panel.
Is blocking reverse current (
Battery to panel)during night.
Then, connect the red line to the negative end of the diode and connect the black line to the negative end of the solar panel.
Make the junction have the same voltage (
Common potential)
Or a small wire. See the pics.
Then connect all the wires to the corresponding port according to the wiring diagram.
Solder the 1 k resistance onto the long legs of the Green LED and then weld the terminal wires.
I installed it well on my case with an LED holder.
After all connections, the conductive parts are insulated using a suitable heat shrink tube.
You can install solar panels in a permanently fixed or removable way.
I prefer the second option.
If the solar panel is permanently fixed on the housing, then you have to put the whole system in the sun to charge the battery.
But in the case, electronic products are not friendly to high temperature.
To prevent rain and sunlight, another option is to make a long extension cord with a removable solar panel.
I installed the solar panels with self-adhesive Velcro and the bonding was very good.
You can also remove the panel easily.
To insert a solar panel extension cord, make a small hole in the housing.
As shown in the figure, first glue a thick foam board.
Apply the hot glue to the surface of the battery and paste it to the surface of the shell.
Note: This is not the right way to install heavy lead acid batteries.
I just arranged it temporarily.
I will fix it later using the aluminum channels and long screws.
After the wiring is done, the wires are really messy.
It is important to arrange the wire properly, because if there is any fault with the system, you can easily identify it.
I arranged the wires in groups and stuck them to the base using adhesive tape.
To install the solar panel extension cord, I used the self-adhesive velcro to make the stand.
See above.
After wearing the wires, the final look was really neat and clean.
Check the wiring thoroughly before testing.
Any errors can damage the component.
If the wiring is perfect, connect the battery terminal and turn on the main switch (S1 ).
Turn on the voltmeter.
If the battery voltage is perfect (
More than 12 V)
, Turn on the LED switch and should light up.
Turn on the inverter switch where the led should light up and you will notice the sound of the fan.
Turn on the USB switch and the backlight led should glow.
Now the system is ready to use.
Connect your smartphone/tablet to USB and connect your laptop charger or camera charger to your inverter outlet. It should work.
To charge the battery from power AC, plug the charger into the charger socket.
The final product is really good.
I really like it.
The only problem is the heavy lead-acid battery, which is too heavy for a four-helicopter suitcase.
Hope you enjoy reading my project as much as I do.
I will encourage you to do this if you want to do it yourself and you will learn a lot.
If you have any suggestions for improvement, please comment below. Thanks !
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