Committed to be the most competitive technology-leading manufacturer of lithium batteries!


light electric vehicle: one-passenger @ 15mph, 210# curb weight

by:HGB     2020-06-04
I designed and built this fun and successful light electric car a few years ago.
I just posted it on \"instructures\" and will add more steps in the next few weeks, detailing the building.
For more information, please temporarily use the link to my web space: www. home. earthlink. net/~hcf-
305 user forum I decided from off-the-
Shelf Components using existing technology.
The goal is to define car transport all the way to the basic motor vehicle errands: a passenger and a considerable payload, traveling up to 5-
10 miles away, fast, all at an affordable price.
Unlike most electric cars, electric motorcycles seem to be on the right track --
They just need to run faster.
After checking the mobile scooter on the market, HCF-
305 seems particularly suitable for this project.
It\'s actually running so fast that manufacturers are in trouble and medical mobile vendors are uninstalling their HCF-Inventory 305.
I know this car is perfect for the task.
I started modifying HCF-
305, first install the super light aircraft seat and seat belt for comfort, stability and protection, and then build the body around it.
This homemade car is classified as a \"light electric vehicle\": a new type of car that is efficient and leanand-
An average machine heavier than a passenger (s).
The essence of light electric vehicles is power transportation.
The problem with most electric cars today is that they usually weigh at 2,500 pounds or more.
Such a car has huge obstacles in simply transporting itself, which is at best a failed battle.
Another disturbing fact is that full-size electric vehicles put pressure on the local grid: most communities do not have the power infrastructure, especially the nearby wires and transformers, charge one or two full-size electric vehicles in each community.
Now, I have 3,000 miles (
360 charging cycle)
This vehicle has been logged in.
Whenever I drive this strange duck near me and want to buy one.
I politely told them that I would starve to death if I lived on these things.
This project is no different from my radio-controlled model airplane: It\'s a real labor of love --
This requires a lot of research and patching to keep everything going smoothly.
But the casual bystander saw only a lovely, reliable car that could run around town quickly and easily.
Assuming the car is close to the mass market, it will be a considerable extension.
Like many members of my local Electric Vehicle Association, I think my electric car is a toy and a pleasure and certainly not a replacement for an internal combustion engine. But we try.
* Here are the details of how I can build a successful lead
My light electric car uses an acid battery pack.
But thanks to the outstanding success of my lithium
Iron phosphate battery pack, I\'m no longer an advocate for lead
Acid batteries for electric vehicles.
View details in lithium-
The iron phosphate battery part of this manual.
After rapidly exhausting two OEM 24 volt 40 amp battery packs, after only 50 miles per battery pack, I installed a different set of replacement batteries for my light electric vehicle, and achieved excellent four-
12 V, 21Amp PowerSonic PSH-12180NB-
FR battery, producing 24 volt 42 amp battery pack.
But, after receiving the delivery of the battery, I quickly pry open from the sealed plastic plate, which covers six soft rubber valve covers on the battery and adds almost 1.
1/2 ounces of liquid (44. 4 milliliters)
Electrolyte solution for standard batteries (an over-the-
Counter products of 35% sulfuric acid and 65% water)
A total of 9 liquid ounces per cell (266)per battery.
The electrolyte level only needs to cover the lead plate and is no longer needed.
Standard lead-acid batteries need to be filled with nearly 1/2 electrolyte on the lead plate, but your sla agm battery is much better with fewer batteries.
To inject the electrolyte into the battery, I prefer to use the small el-
Cheap battery electrolyte bulb tester with colored plastic balls.
The tip part of the bulb tester is inserted into the small battery opening and the electrolyte is quickly sprayed into the battery so that the solution has no chance of flooding into the outside
Top of the battery.
Then check the battery with a small led flashlight to see if the lead plate is covered with electrolyte, but no longer.
A dark room or shed is the best option.
A thin plastic straw (
Chemical inertia)
If the bubbles in the cell hole block your line of sight, poke it and pop up the bubbles, this comes in handy.
It may sound shocking and radical for most people to turn on and \"turn off\" a very good set of new batteries and cancel the warranty.
But after reading the question carefully, I came to the conclusion that my judgment was correct --
The advice from the battery expert is either wrong or notexistent.
You see, the sealed acid battery is essentially \"lack of electrolyte\" because the fiberglass mat between the lead plates is only 95% saturated in order for them to leak evidence.
Therefore, the water consumption of the \"sealed\" system is a constant concern.
Only when the battery is designed in this way can the performance return to the second line.
Another benefit of flooding sealed lead-acid batteries is the ability to provide inherent heat dissipation.
That is to say, typical submerged deep-cycle batteries usually get warm due to heavy use or quick charging, but if the sealed lead-acid batteries get hot (or even warm)
In Touch, the lead/glass mat cells inside are likely to have dried up and burned out, due to the fact that the empty space in the battery is completely unable to dissipate heat from the lead plate.
Another symptom of burning sealed lead-acid batteries (
AKA: heat out of control)
It also smells a disgusting smell of vinegar.
If the new high
Rate-sealed lead-acid batteries are truly reliable, so why are golf cart manufacturers not installing them to make their vehicles lighter and more responsive?
I think those are more expensive, small and high.
Lead-acid batteries with performance seals must be submerged (
Electrolyte added)
The greatest potential.
With the added electrolyte, six soft rubber battery covers are replaced to the battery, and any electrolyte spilled over the top of the battery is cleaned up with a paper towel.
I then stabbed each of the six soft rubber battery caps in the middle with a standard putter to eliminate the internal vacuum that occurred when the battery cooled to ambient temperature, draining the electrolyte in the glass mat to less than 95% saturation (
* WARNING: once, I put the battery cover on the board with an early battery pack and pierced each battery cover in the middle with a heated red color
For better ventilation, the hot pull straight the end of the paper clip, however, the larger diameter vent greatly increases the possibility of sparking a battery explosion, which I no longer do). The now-
Simply put, the flooded battery does not have to be completely \"sealed \".
Then, put the plastic cover back in place, put it on the battery cover, stick the tape vertically and keep both ends bare to allow the battery to ventilate.
Some precautions are indeed required to use the battery electrolyte solution (
Some people say it\'s dangerous.
But the same is true of using a table saw or driving a car): -
Use only the standard battery electrolyte solution (an over-the-
Counter products of 35% sulfuric acid and 65% water).
Do not use pure sulfuric acid.
This is extremely dangerous and ineffective.
\"Topping\" with water will only weaken your sla/agm batteries because they are not at all like typical flooded batteries. -
Make sure someone nearby is within the distance of shouting in case the electrolyte enters the eye and helps you rinse your eyes with water, or better yet, special emergency eyes --flush solution.
Or, if you are exposed to a large amount of electrolyte, go to the emergency room of the local hospital (
However, due to time constraints, emergency Flushing is still required). -
Wear old, worn clothes to protect your eyes.
The electrolyte of small droplets has an insidious habit of creating large holes in your favorite yard work clothes, which appear after a week or two of exposure.
Cellulose products are very vulnerable to electrolyte solutions (
Blue jeans, canvas shirt, wood floor). -
Close-fitting latex (or nitrile)
Gloves should be worn.
I only wear them sometimes.
However, in any case, after the event, the hand should be scrubbed with baking soda and washed with soap and water, hands and arms. The four -
12 V, 21Amp PowerSonic PSH-12180NB-
The FR battery is then connected in series in pairs and then in parallel, resulting in a 24 volt 42 amp battery pack.
However, a further reading of the subject suggests that the battery may run better if the first wired parallel, since 2-
The 12 volt group is then connected in series to produce a 24 Volt battery pack.
The reason for this is that the weak battery does not reduce the excessive
In this arrangement, there are as many battery packs as there are.
A 7/8 thick insulation liner, a closed
Battery foam resistant to battery electrolyte solution is placed under the battery pack to absorb road impact as the shock absorber on the vehicle is adjusted to the maximum stiffness to create a more efficient journey, maximize the range of vehicles.
These high-speed PowerSonic batteries are actually developed for emergency backup power systems, computer networks, etc. .
While trying and proving in an electric wheelchair on a 3-cruise
For 4 miles/hour, these batteries are not extensively tested on high-performance power vehicles.
But they are high. drain usage -without damage.
In addition, agm (
Absorbing glass mat)
Batteries, they have a strong tolerance to the impact and vibration of the electric vehicle environment.
What needs attention here is HCF-
The 305 is unique because the OEM electronic controller allows the 600-watt motor to run the vehicle at a speed of 14 miles per hour.
This is a different world, for example, running a 600-watt motor on a car with a maximum speed of 4 miles per hour.
In short, a set of sla batteries that successfully run wheelchairs for many years will run out quickly when connected to a high-performance electronic controller (as in the HCF-305)
Drive a car at 14 miles an hour
Original OEM battery pack (2 -
24 v battery)for the HCF-
305,24 V/40 amp-
Hour capacity, just not durable enough to power the vehicle at a 14 mile/hour cruise speed.
It should have been designed with 24 volts/70 amps
Electronic controller for 24 volts/70 amps for this type of load.
The OEM battery pack was designed to cruise at a speed of about 8 mph, perhaps occasionally racing against other mobile scooters at 14 mph outside a red light.
But this restriction can be solved. Read on.
Another warning: do not try to make custom 24 V battery pack for more than 40 V42 amps.
Doing so will soon burn the electronic controller.
Replacing an electronic controller with higher capacity will result in the loss of many special functions unique to HCF-
Performance and convenience.
All in all, a high performance, off-
The brand electronic controller will simply run the motor
Nothing else.
Measurement Standard problem the same height, same length and half width of HCF-
305 battery, packed with four PowerSonic replacement batteries installed tightly in HCF-
305 battery compartment.
Be sure to design a method that holds each battery tightly to the right position. The HCF-
The 305 has a shock absorber of the smallest size, any collision and movement of the battery will cause the battery cable to loosen.
The current in the battery cable is enough to melt the steel.
Although the new battery arrived early
After charging, using standard HCF-, the modified \"top\" battery must be fully charged at night305 charger.
After charging, each battery is tested at 13. 5-14 Volts -
Another advantage of adding a standard electrolyte to an sla Battery is that, without overloading the HCF, additional \"pep\" is added to performance\"
305 electronic controller.
Enhancing battery pack performance on HCF-makes no sense
305, if the full power is limited to the electronic controller and the motor.
Specifically, the OEM 12gw harness needs to be replaced with a customized, more robust 10gw automotive harness.
The problem with the OEM 12gw wiring is that it is really not enough for the fast discharge feature running HCF-
Full cruise speed 305.
The motors of the OEM 600 W also have the same 12gw wiring, indicating that the motor manufacturers may have never intended to make their motors run so hard.
And the cross.
The part of the OEM 12gw wire has no less than 65 fine copper wires that are very vulnerable to trace battery electrolyte that goes deep into the wiring (
10-damaged acid
I have 1/2 \"/27 cm wires on my HCF305! ).
And the standard 10 GW car wiring is much heavier, can handle 60% of the current, and more importantly, Cross
Section A the typical 10gw car line has about 19 thick copper wires, which are much less likely to absorb the battery electrolyte, if this happens, they block the flow of high current to acid corrosion in the line.
Once the manufacturing is completed, on the new red and black 10gw battery pack cables, the traction contacts need to be carefully \"loaded\" with an electronic resin core filler to improve the efficiency of the battery wiring
Battery pack cables have initially curled battery contacts, which sometimes limit the free passage of a large amount of current, resulting in \"hot spots \". Lead-
The base tin with a much lower melting point (
374 degrees Fahrenheit)than lead-free solder (
430 degrees Fahrenheit)
Melt freely in the copper braids of the wires with a 75-watt welding gun to obtain a clean, large flow of DC current. Lead-
In order to overcome the heat, a dingbenzene pencil torch may be needed for free welding
Sink properties of heavy copper wire and quickly melt solder into connectors and wires.
However, if you choose to add an electrolyte to your sla Battery (and you should)
\"Tinning\" is an essential step.
The reason is that there will always be a small amount of electrolyte that can make the external battery (
Drive a car from a rough surface, etc. )
, And contact with battery terminals and battery connections.
Once connected, even a very small amount of electrolyte can quickly enter the woven copper wiring, thus damaging and hindering the normal flow of DC current.
\"Tinning\", while not preventing this corrosion, will effectively ensure that the DC current passes through the wire at all times.
Initially, I just simply cut off the OEM wiring connector with a heavy duty 12-
10 gw ring terminals for 8-1
10 bolts, curled on the battery pack cable, and \"tin plate\" with a proper amount of solder paste \".
Then apply and work in a large number of special battery terminal grease, which also have special inhibitors to neutralize the battery electrolyte.
The battery terminals and wiring connectors must be kept clean at all times.
Sometimes the powder deposits formed on the terminals are the result of acid corrosion of the battery.
The battery pack can usually be charged through a corroded contact.
However, the high battery discharge rate required to drive a vehicle will produce \"hot spots\" where there is corrosion, greatly reducing the performance of the vehicle.
To remove the corrosion of the battery terminals, I found that the spray of the \"Windex\" window cleaner was good (
Alternative brands don\'t work either)
Due to its alkaline composition, most of the corrosion can be quickly dissolved, and the Wick can also be inserted into the harness to further dissolve any hidden corrosion.
Saturating an old toothbrush with Windex works well in removing acid corrosion from more stubborn areas.
The \"CRC\" brand battery cleaner with acid indicator is also a fast and excellent aerosol product with a thorough foaming effect, and when in contact with acid, the yellow foam becomes pink.
The second app in the pink area left a completely clean set of battery terminals and connectors.
The instructions on the can suggest flushing with water, but I just wipe it clean with a paper towel and leave some foam residue to neutralize any acid that may appear again.
If this does not completely eliminate all corrosion, brush with a small brass brush (
Size of toothbrush)
And carefully remove the remaining corrosion from the battery terminals and connectors.
Any stubborn area can be removed with a small and sharp knife. Medium-coarse steel (soap-free)
It can also be used to ensure a strong electrical connection.
Wipe dry and let everything dry completely.
To prevent corrosion deposits from forming again, apply a dielectric grease on the terminals and wiring connectors-
Or better: Silicone insulated terminal grease.
The new battery pack also needs to gradually \"break in \".
That is to say, run your HCF-
305 miles during the first trial run.
Then fully charge the battery pack. Run your HCF-
305 no more than 4 miles for the second run, charging.
Seven miles for the third time, nine miles for the fourth time, 11 miles for the fifth time, and 14 miles for the sixth time.
Your battery pack is now ready for hard use. The HCF-
305 there should now be a maximum of 15.
In the open countryside, travel 5 miles or 9 miles on the smooth ground.
Station 5 miles nearbyand-
Travel at 15 miles an hour.
First test run on HCF-
305, the vehicle is driving at full speed, about 8-1/2 miles (
But don\'t be like I dosee above)
Before the thermal sensor in the motor causes the circuit breaker button to fully extend, turn off the power of the vehicle.
According to the instructions of HCF-
305 operation manual, vehicle (
Actually motor)
Before the circuit breaker button is pushed back for flushing, it is allowed to cool for about 20 minutes (reset)
Location and HCF-
About a mile away, the 305 was turned on and drove home with a backup power supply.
Before the second trial run, a digital speedometer/odometer was installed to provide higher accuracy.
The digital odometer is particularly useful when operating light electric vehicles, as it provides a clear, precise display of the remaining mileage of the vehicle.
* The following is the result of the PowerSonic battery pack (
On a smooth, paved surface and equipped with a modified bike trailer)
: Top speed: 15 miles per hour (24. 2kph)
* Maximum range (
On a smooth surface, in an open country): 15. 5miles (24. 9 kilometers)@ 15mph (24. 2kph)31 miles (49. 9 kilometers)@ 9. 2mph (14. 8kph)46. 5 miles (74. 8 kilometers)@ 4. 6mph (7. 4kph)
* Maximum range (
Parking nearbyand-go traffic): 10 miles (15. 3 kilometers)@ 15mph (24. 2kph)20. 5 miles (30. 6 kilometers)@ 9. 2mph (14. 8kph)31 miles (45. 9 kilometers)@ 4. 6mph (7. 4kph)
* It should be noted here that the above is the maximum range.
That said, I drove my electric car at full speed until the electronic controller was turned off and then carefully recorded the mileage.
If you want your battery pack to enjoy a satisfactory life, it is not recommended to do so. Doing so (
Try to drive your car until it climbs home)
It is often called \"batterycide \".
* Run the above mileage and your battery pack will last about 1,000 miles/120 charge cycles each time you charge.
But simply run your vehicle with a maximum mileage of more than 2/3 (
But still cruising at 15 miles an hour.
, Will double the life of the battery pack to 2,000 miles/240 charge cycles, and I find this a better deal --off.
* It is also important to note that the average annual temperature in the place where I live and drive an electric car is 58.
6 degrees Fahrenheit (= 14.
8 degrees Celsius).
If your average annual temperature is higher then you can expect a shorter battery pack life.
If your average annual temperature is low, it is expected that the life of your battery pack will be longer.
The above mileage is at the ambient operating temperature of 70 degrees Fahrenheit.
Driving in cold weather can reduce the range, driving in warm weather can increase the range as follows: 100 degrees Fahrenheit: 128% range, dual LED headlights on: 115% range 90 degrees F open 119% range of dual LED headlights: open 107% range 80 degrees F of dual LED headlights: 109% range: 98% range 70 degrees F: 100% range, dual LED headlights open: 90% range 60 degrees Fahrenheit: 87% range, dual LED headlights on: 78% range 50 degrees Fahrenheit: 74% range for dual LED headlights on: 67% range for dual LED headlights on 40 degrees Fahrenheit: 61% range for dual LED headlights on: 55% range 30 degrees F: 47% range, dual LED headlights on: 42% range * range increased by 75% if PowerCheq electronic balance module is installed in the battery pack (
Please see the PowerCheq page in this manual).
However, one possible complication is HCF-
Motor overload sensor 305.
While this valuable feature will prevent the motor from overheating and burn out, the sensor-
Start the circuit breaker, about 4-
Ride 1/4 miles (at 15 mph)
Will kick in the darkest hours, such as speeding at busy intersections, etc. . At full speed (15 mph)
, The thermal sensor inside the motor aluminum end plate signals to the electronic controller, which decides to turn off the power supply at 126 degrees F, resulting in HCF-
305 to a complete stop.
A short wait of a few minutes is the full time required for the motor to cool, and the circuit breaker of the vehicle can be reset.
Alternatively, the better option is: accelerate to full speed cruise, then back on the throttle until the speed drops significantly and then slightly increase the throttle to full speed cruise.
You will cruise like a professional.
More importantly, you can cruise at a continuous cruising speed of 15 miles per hour, and the electronic controller can now allow the motor to operate at temperatures of up to 145
The motor is not overheated at 150 degrees Fahrenheit.
Before the amber charging led turns green, the replacement PowerSonic battery pack takes an entire 8 hours of charging time.
But full overnight charges (12-14 hours)
Highly recommended.
After full power, each 12 volt battery is tested at 13. 5-14 Volts.
Note that the electrolyte of the sealed lead-acid battery is slightly different, which affects the end voltage.
If you install a PowerSonic battery
Choose not to turn them on and add electrolyte, the full charge voltage should be 12. 8 to 14 Volts.
Always charge your lead-acid battery pack after running well (4-1/2 to 7-
1/2 miles or more).
Failure to do so will lead to deterioration of the lead plate. Also, like Ni-
I have read that lead-acid batteries can also develop memory.
This means, for example, that after a short test around the block, the battery pack should not be charged until the vehicle is stored.
Therefore, charging the battery pack may adversely affect the next cycle, thus reducing the scope.
I\'m not worried about this possibility, but I posted it just in case.
So far, the results of the new battery pack are amazing.
About $260.
$00 Am including freight (
But prices rose in 2009)
, I feel these batteries will provide a compact but powerful, reliable high
Rate discharge system powered for HCF
305 of 600 watt motor. My HCF-
305 is now running as many errands as possible in town to find out exactly how hard these easy batteries are.
Only a light \"top\" is needed to check the battery electrolyte level occasionally-
\"Off\" of a battery, \"off\" of a battery, with electrolyte (
With these batteries, don\'t top with distilled water).
The battery in the battery pack occasionally rotates from the front to the back to distribute wear (if any)
Put evenly on the battery.
I was asked: how do people know when the life of the electric vehicle battery pack is over?
The answer is that after a year or two of service, the performance of the vehicle is simple and quickly reduced to half.
In electric vehicles, lead-acid battery packs are usually replaced when the capacity drops to 80% (
80% capacity = 1/2 range of new battery pack)or less.
To fully understand the use of old batteries with a capacity of 80% now: Mark \"21 Am p hours\" rating on the outside of the battery and write in \"16 Am p hours, and treat the battery accordingly.
But my \"abandoned\" 12VDC sealed lead-acid battery (but flooded)
Very welcome to join the old battery pack of my wind generator --
Or the Sun tracks the solar panels, where they will continue to enjoy satisfactory service for many years.
Purists have the option of charging their custom battery pack with four 12 volt chargers, one each, to ensure a \"balance battery pack \".
But this is not necessary for HCF
305, as the battery is ordered from the supplier, designated as a matching group. Also, the HCF-
305 the electronic controller never allows the battery pack to discharge below 40%, so the weak battery that may exist in the battery pack will not be a problem.
And periodic rotation (
Every time the battery electrolyte water is checked, it will be completed)
In the battery arrangement in the battery pack, any one will balance the possible system pressure.
The arrangement of 4 12 V battery packs is also defined as \"low voltage traction battery pack\" and is not maintained-
With newer, higher voltage, multiple battery packs in newer electric vehicles on the market, this is critical.
\"Balance battery pack\" is essential for lithium
Polymer-powered radio-controlled model aircraft, but not a pack of four lead-acid batteries carefully protected by HCF
305 electronic controller.
However, I am building a light 12 volt fast charger that will be permanently installed on the vehicle to take advantage of the locally proposed electric vehicle infrastructure to double the vehicle\'s scope of work.
It needs four 12 volt chargers in order to carefully control fast chargingcharge process.
The new battery pack will soon have a fuse installed on each battery, for a short period of time
The short battery does not break the entire package.
Strangely, the OEM battery pack harness is not fused.
In addition, the series
Parallel arrangements push the limits that amateurs really try on such items, so please keep posting specific wiring details with photos attached.
Power your HCF
Light electric vehicles for 305/other types of batteries: HCF-
305 small compact sla-agm (
Sealed lead acid-
Absorbing glass mat)
Deep cycle battery.
The problem is that the standard issue WP20-although deep loops-
The 24E battery is not designed to be \"high\"
Rate \"batteries, as they are not designed to meet the replay power requirements of the 600 watt motor.
But with the new generation
Rate sealed lead acid batteries and really don\'t have a better battery to complete the task.
Sealed lead-acid batteries first appeared in the 1970s s and slowly improved and developed into today\'s SLA, twice the capacity in the 1970s s and 80 s.
SLA/AGM is now a better choice than lithiumion batteries.
An electric car with sla even if it is not used-
Agm batteries only lose about 8% of battery power per month.
Even this will only gradually drop to 20%-
30%, total, more than 6 months.
However, opening the battery pack and flooding the battery pack with electrolyte will cause the battery to behave like a typical submerged lead-acid battery and the battery pack will automatically
Almost 1% per day.
Traditional lead-acid drive
Deep cycle golf cart battery is too big and too much trouble.
Traditional submerged lead-acid car batteries are not designed to survive the deep cycle applications needed for electric vehicles.
Use standard car batteries in HCF
305, will cause permanent damage to each cycle and destroy them after about 25 run/charge cycles.
Deep cycle lead-acid battery (
Swamped and absorbed gass mat)
Not suitable for power supply for electric vehicles.
The interior design of the marine battery is between the deep cycle golf cart lead-acid battery and the traditional submerged lead-acid car battery.
The problem is that the initial performance seems to be very successful.
Until the battery pack finally dies after about 50 runs/charge cycles.
However, a real advantage of using marine batteries is that in many docks, the port owners will give you their remaining used marine batteries for free.
The battery will work but just tired and not full load.
This is not a bad deal for cheap people.
Sealed lead acid-
Gel batteries are now entering the electric \"fun\" car.
Sealed lead-acid absorbing glass pad batteries are sometimes incorrectly marked as \"gelcell \"-
They are not, but they create chaos.
But like most compact sla\'s
The Agm battery, compact gel battery cannot withstand the harsh test of the 500 W and 1,000 W Motors.
More importantly, there are electrolyte in the gel state and they cannot be tampered with by handyman and serve effectively. Sla -
Gel batteries are essentially disposable batteries.
And don\'t try to install a pair (or a four-pack)
Fisher available at any time
Price of 12 V, 9 V electric wheel. 5Ah batteries (Series cable)-
Or a pair of 12 V 12 ah batteries.
Although a reliable, long-term
These types operate power supplies for children\'s toy cars and are designed only to handle dual 20 watt motors with a speed of 3 or 4 mph for deceleration operation.
Run these through the 600-watt HCF-
305 cars will destroy them soon.
So if you want to power their light electric vehicles with lead
Acid Battery, sealed lead acid absorbing glass pad battery that looks compact with rear
The electrolyte supplemented by the market is the best option to power the vehicle.
The weight ratio is 1:4 (
Battery pack: total number of vehicles)
This is what a good electric car should be. Nickel metal-
Hydrogen Battery (
Consists of more than one. 2 Volt cells)
This is still a problem for the mobile scooter app. So are nickel-cadmiums.
And electric cars with NiMH or Ni-
If Cad batteries are not used, it will lose nearly 10% of its battery power per day! Lithium-
Sometimes using ion batteries in costis-
No object items, high-
Technology and instant credibility.
But in fact, the only \"advantage\" is that it takes about $1,000 extra for your HCF gear
305 with a lithium battery-
Ion batteries, they are still the same size, the same weight and the same 40 amp capacity. But one little-
Known properties of lithium
The ion battery is that they can\'t stand a fast discharge rate.
Especially the demand generated by electric vehicles.
In addition, OEM electronic controller on HCF-
305 need to be replaced with a custom unit as lithium-
During normal discharge, the voltage of the ion battery pack drops sharply, and the OEM electronic controller senses a low voltage, which will turn off the vehicle prematurely, which is smaller than the range generated by the standard lead-acid battery pack.
So is the new lithium.
Polymer battery-
Apart from the fact that they did handle the fast discharge rate very well.
Incredible success, lithium creates false hopes.
Polymer batteries are now used for many high
Performance Radio-
Models of cars and planes.
But the change of lithium
The polymer power of electric vehicles is just no cost. effective.
Frankly, it doesn\'t even work.
Although the fuel cell is promising, it is too fragile, too expensive, and is still under development in the application of light electric vehicles.
Even if they are developed and sold, there is currently no infrastructure available to refuel electric vehicles at any time. LiFePO4 (
Lithium iron phosphate)
Battery technology could change the light electric vehicle industry forever.
The technology is here, and if you go around, the cost is about 1 now.
Equivalent to 5 to 2 times the cost of a set of SLA batteries.
The development of real new batteries for electric vehicles is very slow and stubborn and has just begun a real breakthrough.
I upgraded my HCF a few years ago-305 with a 25-Volt 40-Amp-Hour Lithium-
The iron phosphate battery pack has doubled-
The electronic controller is not overloaded.
Same size as my OEM battery pack, new-Square lithium
The 25 pounds-pound iron phosphate battery pack is only half the lead.
Acid battery pack.
Another provocation
Interestingly, the idea has invested $450 in a 110-watt combination of 24-volt wind turbines and 1,500-watt solar panels.
Also included is the 00 pack of tower hardware and electronic charging panel. ~hcf-
305 userforumPowerCheq is a real
Time, electronic Battery balancing system, balancing and maintaining the battery during charging, discharging and idle.
By continuously balancing a single battery within a string of batteries, the battery is properly maintained and maintained in the same charging state.
The operation during the charging process ensures that all batteries are fully equally charged, thus preventing undercharging/overcharging.
A good demo of the device\'s functionality can be found on the following website: As mentioned earlier, IV.
12 V, 21Amp PowerSonic PSH-12180NB-
The FR battery is connected in series in pairs and then in parallel to produce a 24 volt 42 amp battery pack.
But it is well known that in such a battery pack, the two batteries connected to the final positive pole of the electronic controller discharge much faster than the other two batteries, connected to the final negative line of the electronic controller.
This creates a serious imbalance, leaving unused power not only in two negative factors
Battery, but also reduce the life of excessive use
All battery packs-
Even if the battery rotates regularly.
My original plan was to use bulky wires.
Eight wires from the battery into one side and two wires exiting from the other to the on-duty electrical switch of the electronic controller.
On the way home, the switch will be used halfway through the vehicle.
The order of the battery pack will be completely rearranged (
Battery rotation)
This, I think, will increase the mileage of the vehicle by 25% and extend the overall life of the battery pack.
At the same time, however, I heard about the PowerCheq battery string EQ, which seems to be more of a userfriendly -and efficient.
But the comments on the Internet don\'t seem very enthusiastic.
And manufacturers (PowerDesigners)
The device has been removed from their website (www.
Powerdesignersusa. com).
After reading the low performance boost reported by PowerCheq users, I feel the problem is that the PowerCheq device actually developed for electric wheelchairs and mobile scooters is actually, buying and installing full-size electric cars.
And, as can be expected, the performance boost is only negligible at best due to the huge size of the battery.
In short, the PowerCheq battery string EQ will increase by 75 amps-
Hours of battery, but common sense tells us that only so much power can pass through the thin 16wg-
Power wiring.
But when PowerCheq is used with 21 am pere, the situation changeshours (AH)
Battery: revolutionary device features the best!
The PowerCheq Module Interconnect two 12 v batteries connected in each 24VDC series string in the battery pack, creating a bi-
Directional energy transfer path between batteries.
The module intelligently balances the battery during charging, discharging, and idle, keeping them in the same charging state-
It is critical for the battery life and range of the vehicle battery pack.
Only two PowerCheq devices are required, because the simple parallel connection of the battery pack naturally balances the two 24VDC battery packs.
Voltage check, and amp-
Load test was carried out: after charging, halfway through the errands, and after returning home, the battery pack was always perfectly balanced, and the LED indicator lights on the powerCheq module were constantly flashing and the work was busy.
Each module operates at 85% efficiency and transmits up to 2 amps while consuming only about 5 mA of the current of the battery.
After charging, the PowerCheq device raises the 6-watt floating charge of the vehicle charger to a 7-watt floating charge.
More information about the device can be found at: www. evsource.
Com/tls _ powercheq. php www.
Open vision. com/powercheq.
The following is the result (
On a smooth, paved surface and equipped with a modified bike trailer)
Use the modified PowerSonic battery pack (
Open and drown with standard battery electrolyte solution)
Two PowerCheq battery string EQ installed: Max speed: 15 mph (22. 5kph)
* Maximum range (
On a smooth surface, in an open country): 27 miles (43. 5 kilometers)@ 15mph (24. 2kph)54 miles (87 kilometers)@ 9. 2mph (14. 8kph)
* This mileage has been calculated-No road test. 81 miles (130 kilometers)@ 4. 6mph (7. 4kph)
* This mileage has been calculated-No road test.
* Maximum range (
Parking nearbyand-go traffic): 19. 2 miles (26. 7 kilometers)@ 15mph (24. 2kph)35. 8 miles (53. 5 kilometers)@ 9. 2mph (14. 8kph)
* This mileage has been calculated-No road test. 54. 2 miles (80. 3 kilometers)@ 4. 6mph (7. 4kph)
* This mileage has been calculated-No road test.
The above milestone applies to the ambient operating temperature of 70 degrees Fahrenheit.
The above results are preliminary as the actual mileage is completed at below the optimum operating temperature (
53 degrees Fahrenheit in autumn)
Then calculate the expected 70 degrees Fahrenheit (
Normal operating temperature)
Will be fine-
Adjust in the next few months.
* It should be noted here that the above is the maximum range.
That said, I drove my electric car at full speed until the electronic controller was turned off and then carefully recorded the mileage.
If you want your battery pack to enjoy a satisfactory life, it is not recommended to do so. Doing so (
Try to drive your car until it climbs home)
It is often called \"batterycide \".
When the Green led on the PowerCheq unit flashes, it just means that the device strives to maintain the perfect balance of the battery while charging or driving the vehicle.
Warning: flashing green led stops working when battery discharge is below minimum voltage, solid red led lights up.
At this point the PowerCheq device stops balancing the battery and the vehicle should be charged on the spot or pushed home.
Further driving of the vehicle will result in permanent, long-term
The long-term damage of the battery pack shortens its life.
Each time you charge, your battery pack will last about 1,000 miles/120 charging cycles.
But simply run your vehicle at 2/3 and maximize the life of the battery pack to 2,000 miles/240 charge cycles, I found this to be a better dealoff.
That said, this is my recent note to reach the maximum range and the right performance: maximum recommended range at 15 mph Cruise speed: 100 F: 17. 0 miles . . . .
Turn on the double LED headlights: 15.
3 miles 90 degrees Fahrenheit: 15. 8 miles . . . .
Double LED headlights on: 14.
80 degrees 2 miles: 14. 5 miles . . . .
Double LED headlights on: 13.
70 degrees 0 miles: 13. 3 miles . . . .
Dual LED headlights on: 12.
60 degrees 0 miles Fahrenheit: 11. 6 miles . . . .
Dual LED headlights on: 10.
4 miles 50 degrees Fahrenheit: 9. 8 miles . . . . .
Open double LED headlights: 8.
9 miles 40 degrees Fahrenheit: 8. 1 miles . . . . .
Open double LED headlights: 7.
3 Miles 30 degrees Fahrenheit: 6. 3 miles . . . . .
Open double LED headlights: 5.
6 miles these modified miles are not what I like, but are completely satisfactory for local errands.
Only time can tell if the life of the battery pack has really doubled.
Another advantage in these reduced mileage is that the battery pack can actually charge overnight (9 hours)
With a modest OEM battery charger, the vehicle will be ready to drive again the next morning.
When ipurchase PowerCheq devices, I think these devices will increase the range of vehicles by 25%.
But these tiny modules actually add 75% to 100% kilometers to the vehicle\'s mileage.
It\'s humbling that I don\'t know why this happened yet.
In any case, the gold standard: a comprehensive operation on a smooth surface in an open country (no stop-and-go)
@ 70 degrees Fahrenheit will be completed as long as the weather permits.
But the final milestone is actually expected to be slightly better.
I have to admit that I was very surprised by the above results and after many test runs I waited for more than a month before reporting my results to the local Electric Vehicle Association.
It\'s also fun to run errands in the next town.
The era of practical light electric vehicles seems to be in front of us.
PowerCheq electronic battery string Eq (12 V module: 401-PCHQ-12V-2A)
Yes, $58. Each at: www. evsource.
Com/tls _ powercheq. phpOff-the-
Shelf Technology changes so fast that I research, road testing and finetune a high-
Performance deep cycle lead acid battery pack-
Specifically, development is affordable (
$450 for shipping), drop-in-and-
To lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4)
Battery pack with your own battery management system and fast charger.
It all happened a few years ago that I thought was possible.
The reason I\'m excited about the life4battery pack is that it\'s a real high speed battery (
Can withstand a lot of discharge load)
It has a relatively flat discharge curve, so the existing electronic controller designed for deep cycle lead-acid batteries will work well with the new lithium-ion battery pack without having to re-programmed.
Technology advances so fast that I am reluctant to designate any brand as performance, quality and price are expected to increase in the coming years (months? ).
But a good first stop is www. ebay.
Com searches for \"24 volt lithium ion batteries\" to find the latest suppliers.
In addition to my deep cycle lead-acid battery pack and PowerCheq E-battery balancer, I will now purchase and install a PO 4 battery pack which is expected to last for two years.
Note: According to the brand, the maximum discharge rate of these new lithium ion battery packs varies from 2C to 10C.
I recommend Highway 10C.
The \"C\" class is the maximum safe continuous discharge rate of the package.
If you see 10C on the battery pack, this means that it can be discharged at 10 times the capacity of that battery pack.
\"Capacity\" means an amplifier-
The hourly rating of the battery, which will be listed as a number, followed by Ah (
40Ah, for example).
The easy way to find the maximum battery discharge rate is: simply multiply the number in the \"C\" rating by the battery capacity.
Here\'s an example of using 24 V-40Ah-
10C battery pack: 40 amps x 10 = 400 amps maximum discharge amps divided by 2 = 200 amps rated current (continuous)
Discharge current this means that you can safely draw up to 200 amps of current from 24 V-40Ah-continuously
10C won\'t damage your battery pack, though I still don\'t want to be anywhere near the load on the battery pack.
The A24 V, 40Ah lithium ion battery pack will also provide more range than the a24 V, 40Ah lead acid battery pack, as it can discharge more in a typical discharge cycle, can damage the level of a typical deep cycle lead acid battery pack.
The range is therefore expected to increase by 50% per cent.
The weight of the LiFePO battery pack is only about half of the equivalent sealed lead-acid battery pack and about half of the equivalent sealed lead-acid battery pack.
Compared to the typical deep cycle lead-acid battery pack, the lithium-ion battery pack is not affected by low temperature, and at 30 degrees Fahrenheit it provides only half of the range, higher than 70 degrees Fahrenheit
Service life of lithium phosphate battery pack (
Capacity down to 85% = 69% range)
Compared with the deep cycle lead-acid battery pack, the charging cycle is 1,000 times (
With electronic battery management)
With service life (
Capacity down to 80% = 50% range)
250 charging cycles.
This technology naturally means a lot bigger and more affordable.
Soon, passenger cars and utility trucks will be available to ordinary consumers. Stay posted.
The front corner of the original HCF-
The front wheel of 305 is backward!
Take a closer look at any bike or motorcycle and you will find the front wheel reclining nicely in front of the handlebar.
For example, the front corner of a typical motorcycle is about 30 degrees.
The front corner of a carefully designed bike or motorcycle provides inherent stability so that the rider can ride easily without a handle, but can travel straight.
But with HCF
305, the problem can be corrected.
Engineer designing HCF-
The 305 seems to provide a good front angle, but, somehow, the front wheel suspension is reversed (backwards).
The quick check below will show that the front wheel needs to be removed and the brakes on the wheel remain the same.
Both wheels remain on the right side of the standard
Hand threaded bolts with 17mm heads.
But be sure to twist the lock.
First screw the screw on the steering arm.
Then the entire front arm/headphone bearing/steering arm joint on each side needs to be disassembled and switched left and right from each other (
Leave the shock absorber on the frame).
The steering arm below the headphone bearing ,(
Also equipped with hub bolts)
, Need to reverse the installation this time.
But first, the original M101.
The 5-section headphone Bolt needs another 11mm thread cut to be properly installed in the now inverted steering arm (
A simple handyman project). The brakes (
Actually, a drum mounted permanently on the Hub, surrounded by a removable steel compression band)
, Mainly to stop moving forward, so the original side and direction must be maintained.
After adjustment, the front wheel extends a 2 inch forward and the steering rod will now be in a more natural horizontal position. My HCF-
305 now glides more smoothly on bumpy and rugged roads.
Change HCF-
The suspension of the 305 front wheel to the appropriate front angle will reduce the stress on the steering headphone bearing, so that they can now absorb the bumps at a designed angle and pass the bumpy vibration directly to the shock absorber, this will also eliminate these effects better.
Change the OEM 22 \"handlebar\" to 29 \"Longhorn handlebar: HCF-
The 305 is used as a \"Scooter\" with no packaging and pinion steering.
This means that when cruising at full speed, HCF-
305 experience a slight loss of steering control, especially when riding on a rough pavement.
I originally planned to install a hydraulic steering shock absorber on the chassis, but for simplicity, adding 4 \"extensions at each end of the handle should provide proper leverage, natural steering bumper effects.
Steering system for HCF-
305 is built, tight and safe.
But the turning radius is too tight to travel comfortably at full speed.
I have processed two hard stakes with a diameter of 7/8, 7-
1/2 \"length: 4\" @ 7/8 \"diameter 3-
1/2 \"@ 3/4\" in diameter \".
The interior of the handlebar is skimmed and the wooden frame is glued to the proper position and then painted with marine paint.
But these steps are not a cure. all. My HCF-
305 now when driving, lean slightly out of the straight line and tend to turn slightly left and right but over
All operations of the vehicle have been improved.
So feel free to change the front position
End the suspension, but take the risk yourself.
Custom message
Chat Online 编辑模式下无法使用
Leave Your Message inputting...