Predictive modeling of battery degradation and greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. state-level electric vehicle operation
However, the battery experienced a complex degradation process during the operation of the electric vehicle, and its impact on the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of the electric vehicle is not clear.
Here we show the typical 24 kwh lithium-manganese-
Oxide-graphite battery packs can be mathematically modeled on the degradation of electric vehicle batteries to predict battery life and to investigate its impact on the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of electric vehicles operating.
We found out in the US government
The battery life is 5 on average.
In Florida and 13 years.
The three-year battery degradation in Alaska is limited to less than 30%.
Battery Degradation can result in 11. 5–16.
Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions per kilometer increased by 2% per cent and capacity loss was 30% per cent.
This study provides a strong analytical methodology and results to support policy development for priority deployment of electric vehicles in the United StatesS.
Fossil fuel combustion in the transport sector generated 25.
8% of U. S. greenhouse gas emissionsS.
Reducing the impact of ground traffic on climate change, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration have developed a regulatory standard to reduce the average greenhouse gas emissions of US Fleet passenger cars from 139.
The base level in 2016 was 88 kilometres. 8u2009gu2009km in 2025.
Electric vehicles have been widely promoted as clean alternatives for traditional vehicles that reduce greenhouse gas emissions from ground transportation.
The US federal and many state governments are offering a variety of financial and operational incentives, including tax credits, fast-track access, and emission test exemptions.
To promote the adoption of electric vehicles.
Electric vehicles are expected to account for 24% of U. S. lighting.
The current electric vehicle is mainly powered by lithium-ion batteries. in the actual electric vehicle operation process, the lithium-ion battery has undergone a complex degradation process, which determines the energy storage and generates indirect power from the consumed power.
Electricity consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions for electric vehicle operations are determined by the operating conditions of electric vehicles and the process of battery charging/discharging.
In recent years, some studies have investigated the electricity consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of electric vehicle operations, including operational factors such as travel demand, power mixing, operating mode and ambient temperature, although in the analysis of power consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, no study was carried out considering battery degradation under the actual driving conditions of electric vehicles.
In the current study on energy and greenhouse gas analysis, electric vehicle batteries are simply assumed to have the same lifetime as the vehicle, or consider replacing the battery under certain cutsoff mileage.
However, in the actual operation of electric vehicles, the degradation of batteries will gradually occur over time under specific driving conditions, the degradation of the battery will affect the electricity consumption of the electric vehicle in three ways. due to the reduction of capacity, the driving range is reduced. due to the increase of resistance, the charging/discharge efficiency is reduced. when the capacity drops to the battery degradation limit, battery needs to be replaced.
In general, the degradation of electric vehicle batteries goes through two processes: one is due to the internal solids-
The growth of the electrolyte interface layer during the battery charging/discharging process, the structural degradation of the electrode and the loss of circulating lithium, mainly depending on the number of times the battery charges/discharges cycle;
Another is the loss of calendar capacity due to the battery itself
The discharge and side effects during energy storage are mainly determined by the charging state, aging time and ambient temperature, especially the high temperature exposed by the battery.
As operating conditions vary widely across the United StatesS.
The battery degradation, power consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of electric vehicles in each state are very different.
Prediction Analysis of battery degradation and its impact on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in US states-
Level EV operations are not currently available.
Here we report a comprehensive and robust analytical approach for quantifying battery degradation and its impact on medium-term energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissionssize all-
Battery EV under average driving conditions in each of our states.
Through this study, we found that the degradation of electric vehicle batteries varies greatly every year in every state of the United States.
For annual battery degradation, calendar capacity loss contributes more to total capacity loss than cycle capacity loss.
Battery Degradation will greatly increase energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions per kilometer of electric vehicles.
These findings from this study help support strategic planning and policy development for sustainable electric vehicle deployment across the United StatesS. in future.